"The Twelve"


Zechariah means "Yahweh Remembers," which is the theme that dominates the book. Zechariah is a contemporary of Haggai, and like his predecessors, Jeremiah and Ezekiel, he is of priestly lineage. Zechariah stands out as a great prophet, whom we may consider the major of the minors. More than any other of the Twelve, Zechariah publishes the clearest, most explicit, and greatest quantity of prophecies concerning Christ. For this reason, he takes on the likeness of Isaiah among the Twelve. Combining these features of the prophet and his prophecy, the title given to the book is God Remembers: Messiah Will Come. The prophecy has two aims: (1) to attest to Yahweh's covenant faithfulness and (2) to promote spiritual revival. The summary exhortation of the prophecy is to call upon the Lord with a humble heart.

The context of Matthew 23-24 demonstrates an unmistakable consciousness of Zechariah and his prophecies. The Zechariah the Christ speaks of in Matthew 23:32-35 is the author of this prophecy. This prophecy constitutes the second of the three post-exilic prophets (Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi). Similar to Haggai, there is an encouragement to rebuild the temple.


  • 1-8: Encourage remnant while rebuilding
  • 9-14: (after completion) anticipate Israel's coming Messiah

"Eight Visions" (chapters 1-6)

  1. Horsemen among the myrtle trees
    • God is returning to Jerusalem, rebuild (1:7-17)
  2. Four horns and craftsmen
    • Israel’s oppressors will be judged (1:18-21)
  3. Man with a measuring line
    • God will glorify Himself in Jerusalem and dwell in her midst (2:1-13)
  4. Cleansing of Joshua the high priest
    • Israel will be cleansed and restored by the coming Branch (3:1-10)
  5. Golden lampstand
    • God’s Spirit is empowering Zerubbabel and Joshua as witnesses (4:1-14)
  6. Flying scroll
    • individual sin will be judged (5:1-4)
  7. Woman in the basket
    • national sin will be removed (5:5-11)
  8. Four chariots
    • God’s judgment will descend on the nations (6:1-8)

“Four Messages” — (7-8)

  1. Rebuke of empty ritualism (7:4-7)
  2. Reminder of past disobedience (7:8-14)
  3. Restoration and consolation of Israel (8:1-17)
  4. Recovery of joy in the kingdom (8:18-23)

“Two Burdens” — (9-14)

  1. Rejection of Israel’s coming King (9-11)
    1. Alexander the Great to conquer Israel’s neighbors, but will spare Jerusalem (9:1-8)
    2. She will be preserved for her king (9:9-10)
    3. Israel will succeed against Greece (9:11-17) [Maccabean revolt]
    4. They will be scattered, but Messiah will bring them back (10:1-11:3)
    5. Israel will reject her Shepherd-King and be led astray by false shepherds (11:4-17)
  2. Acceptance of Israel’s coming King (12-14)
    1. Nations will attack Jerusalem, but Messiah will come and deliver His people (12)
    2. They will be cleansed of impurity and falsehood (13)
    3. Messiah will come in power to judge the nations and reign in Jerusalem over the whole earth (14)

Christ in Zechariah

  • The angel of the Lord (3:1-2);
  • the righteous Branch (3:8; 6:12-13),
  • the stone with seven eyes (3:9);
  • the King-Priest (6:13);
  • the humble King (9:9-10);
  • the cornerstone, tent peg, and bow of battle (10:4);
  • the good Shepherd who is rejected and sold for thirty shekels of silver, the price of a slave (11:4-13);
  • the pierced One (12:10);
  • the cleansing fountain (13:1);
  • the smitten Shepherd who is abandoned (13:7);
  • and the coming Judge and righteous King (14)

Chapter Summaries

  • Ch. 1: A call for exiled Israel to repent; Yahweh's compassion and jealousy for Jerusalem to be restored
  • Ch. 2: Yahweh is zealous for Jerusalem and will Himself is coming to dwell there among His people!
  • Ch. 3: The high priest's garments exchanged and sins forgiven; The Branch and forgiveness is coming
  • Ch. 4: Zechariah's vision of the golden lampstand and olive trees
  • Ch. 5: The vision of flying scroll and the ephah going forth
  • Ch. 6: The vision of four chariots from between the two mountains; The crown and the Branch
  • Ch. 7: The word of the lord charges the people to seek righteousness and love unlike their fathers
  • Ch. 8: Yahweh will return to dwell in Zion and bring His people back to the land; So love truth and peace
  • Ch. 9: Burden of the word against neighboring nations; Promise of the coming King; Covenant blessings
  • Ch. 10: Yahweh will bless Judah and Ephraim with restoration and strength
  • Ch. 11: The flock given to slaughter; The Shepherd and His two staffs, His value insulted; False shepherd
  • Ch. 12: Future trouble and vindication of Jerusalem and Judah; Grace poured out on the house of David
  • Ch. 13: Fountain of forgiveness to come; False prophecies denounced; The True Shepherd struck
  • Ch. 14: Yahweh will fight against the nations & reign as King in Jerusalem & all will worship Him

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