Having exposed the unrighteousness of self-righteousness, Paul continues the indictment against his impenitent kinsmen with a second major argument. God judges all moral crimes by justice alone, that is with impeccable impartiality. The Jews may appear distinct from the Gentiles on the outside. They may have been entrusted with the oracles of God (3:2). And “to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises” (9:4). But these “kindnesses” (2:4) will not benefit them before the bar of perfect justice. Justice has no favorites and takes no bribe. It is blind to appearances, status, esteem, privilege, pedigree, and creed. True righteousness is no respecter of persons—God shows no partiality.