"The Twelve"


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Hosea means "Salvation," and his message is one of grace. The title given to this book is Restoring Grace: God’s Loyal Love. "Hosea heads the list as it is the longest of the twelve and was considered in Jewish tradition as the earliest: 'The Lord first spoke through Hosea'" (Baba Bathra 14b, 15a). [1]

Prophecy foretells of promises yet to come, but it also confronts sin. It is is designed, then, to promote holiness, so as to speak and admonish “in light of these things.” This is the principle demonstrated in 2 Peter 3:11-16. Some promises are guarantees of coming consequences and call for present change.

HOSEA (764-724 BC) "Salvation"

During King Uzziah and the greatest economic wealth and expansion that Israel experienced since Solomon. The setting and background of Hosea's prophecy, then, is set forth in 2 Chron 26:1-16 (cf. 2 Kings 14:25). These conditions were foretold by Moses (cf. Deut 31:16; 32:15; Hosea 1:2; 3:1).

While Amos preaches repentance, Hosea illustrates love. While Amos presents the unapproachable righteousness of God, Hosea presents the unfailing love of God. It has been said that Hosea is “the first prophet of grace, Israel’s earliest Evangelist.”

Notes


Ch. 1:Hosea reports the word of Yahweh that came to him; that the Lord instructed him to marry a wife of harlotry and have children with her for the purpose of a spiritual lesson of Israel’s unfaithfulness and God’s faithfulness

 

→ Sets the scene and establishes the theme of the book

ESV Hosea 1:6 She conceived again and bore a daughter. And the LORD said to him, "Call her name No Mercy (Lo-Ruhama), for I will no more have mercy on the house of Israel, to forgive them at all.

The time of Israel’s judgment had come! Northern Kingdoms were about to be punished. (2yrs)

ESV Hosea 1:9 And the LORD said, "Call his name Not My People (Lo-Ammi), for you are not my people, and I am not your God."

ESV 2 Corinthians 6:14 Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers. For what partnership has righteousness with lawlessness? Or what fellowship has light with darkness? 15 What accord has Christ with Belial? Or what portion does a believer share with an unbeliever? 16 What agreement has the temple of God with idols? For we are the temple of the living God; as God said, "I will make my dwelling among them and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 17 Therefore go out from their midst, and be separate from them, says the Lord, and touch no unclean thing; then I will welcome you, 18 and I will be a father to you, and you shall be sons and daughters to me, says the Lord Almighty."

Covenant promises made with Israel, but not all were truly His people in heart.

Promise of Judgment → Promise of future Restoration

ESV Hosea 1:10 Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be like the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured or numbered. And in the place where it was said to them, "You are not my people," it shall be said to them, "Children of the living God." 11 And the children of Judah and the children of Israel shall be gathered together, and they shall appoint for themselves one head. And they shall go up from the land, for great shall be the day of Jezreel.


Ch. 2: The Lord draws His object lesson to a close by instructing Hosea to love his adulteress wife (even buy her back) even as Yahweh loves Israel though she is unfaithful.

“she is not my wife and I am not her husband” (v.2)

ESV Hosea 2:13 And I will punish her for the feast days of the Baals when she burned offerings to them and adorned herself with her ring and jewelry, and went after her lovers and forgot me, declares the LORD.

Purpose of God’s judgment against Israel:

ESV Hosea 2:6 Therefore I will hedge up her way with thorns, and I will build a wall against her, so that she cannot find her paths. 7 She shall pursue her lovers but not overtake them, and she shall seek them but shall not find them. Then she shall say, 'I will go and return to my first husband, for it was better for me then than now.'

The passion of God in forgiveness → where it is not deserved! → it is never deserved!

ESV Hosea 2:14 "Therefore, behold, I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak tenderly to her. ... 16 "And in that day, declares the LORD, you will call me 'My Husband,' and no longer will you call me 'My Baal.'

v.19, 20, 23


Ch. 3: The Lord draws His object lesson to a close by instructing Hosea to love his adulteress wife (even buy her back) even as Yahweh loves Israel though she is unfaithful.

v.1, v.2 → “bought her!”

ESV Deuteronomy 4:30 When you are in tribulation, and all these things come upon you in the latter days, you will return to the LORD your God and obey his voice.

v.5 → clearly points to the promise and hope of the Messiah!

ESV John 1:49 Nathanael answered him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!"

Shift to the Lord’s application of the object lesson…


Ch. 4: Israel’s ways are exposed, her priests rejected, her harlotry rebuked, & her stubbornness judged

v.1-3

  1. No Faithfulness
  2. No knowledge of God
  3. No Truth

No Knowledge:

  • Evidence → 4:4-19                  [4:6, 9, 14]
  • Judgment → 5:1-14                 [5:14]
  1. Yahweh has withdrawn from Israel until they seek Him
  • Restoration → 5:15 – 6:3        [6:2-3]

 

No Faithfulness:

  • Evidence → 6:4 – 7:16            [6:4, 7; 7:2, 3, 10, 13, 14]
  1. Rebuke and judgment against Ephraim and the evil deeds of Samaria
  • Judgment → 8:1 – 11:7           [8:1, 8, 9, 11; 9:7, 15, 17; 10:13, 15; 11:5, 6]
  1. Ch. 8: Israel's transgression against yhwh's covenant is announced & consequences proclaimed
  2. Ch. 9: Statements of judgment against all sin & declaration that the days of retribution have come
  • Gilgal is described as a cult center in 4:15 and 12:11
  • Where Saul was inaugurated (1 Sam 11:15)
  1. Ch. 10: Israel's words are worthless and her deeds are wicked, therefore destruction is coming
  • Restoration → 11:8-11            [11:8-9]
  1. Ch. 11: God’s compassion despite flagrant apostasy and spiritual adultery
  2. Cf. 11:3-4

 

No Truth:

  • Evidence → 11:12 – 13:3        [11:12; 12:1, 7]
  1. 12:2-5 → God of your fathers
  2. 12:9-10 → The true and living God
  3. 13:2-3 → Yet Israel has turned to “false gods” → there is no truth!
  • Judgment → 13:4-16               [13:4, 8, 14, 16a]
  1. Bear robbed of her cubs → response: open defilement of God’s holiness!
  2. Ch. 13: The sin of Ephraim is stored up, his idolatry is his own destruction
  • Restoration → 14:1-8              [14:1, 3, 4-8]
  1. Ch. 14: A final call to repentance, to return to Yahweh and seek His forgiveness, to trust in Him alone

A call to respond to God's rebuke & a reminder of their transgression and His true delight

ESV Hosea 6:6 For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.


 

Chapter Summaries

Ch. 1: The word of Yahweh comes to Hosea and instructs him to marry a wife of harlotry & have children

Ch. 2: Depiction of Israel’s unfaithfulness in Hosea’s wife & against which God’s grace is declared

Ch. 3: Hosea instructed to love his adulteress wife even as yhwh loves Israel though she is unfaithful

Ch. 4: Israel’s ways are exposed, her priests rejected, her harlotry rebuked, & her stubbornness judged

Ch. 5: Israel warned: because of her apostasy, Yahweh has withdrawn from Israel until they seek Him

Ch. 6: A call to respond to God's rebuke & a reminder of their transgression and His true delight

Ch. 7: Rebuke and judgment against Ephraim and the evil deeds of Samaria

Ch. 8: Israel's transgression against yhwh's covenant is announced & consequences proclaimed

Ch. 9: Statements of judgment against all sin & declaration that the days of retribution have come

Ch. 10: Israel's words are worthless and her deeds are wicked, therefore destruction is coming

Ch. 11: Yahweh's love for Israel and care for Ephraim, in spite of their rebellion He is compassionate

Ch. 12: Yahweh recounts His care for Israel & calls Ephraim to consider, for he now feeds on wind

Ch. 13: The sin of Ephraim is stored up, his idolatry is his own destruction

Ch. 14: A final call to repentance, to return to Yahweh and seek His forgiveness, to trust in Him alone

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